In situ boron (B)-doped SiGe (BSG) layer is extensively used in the source (S)/(D) drain of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. An unexpected structural evolution occurs in BSG during metallization and activation annealing during actual fabrication, which involves a correlated interaction between B and SiGe. Herein, the complicated phenomena of the structural evolution of BSG were analyzed by 325 nm micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflective second harmonic generation (RSHG), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical inspection was integrated into these processes to establish a multi-optical method. 325 nm micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine variations in Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge bonds in BSG. XPS exhibited the binding energy evolution of Ge3d during different annealing processes at varied Ge ratios and B concentrations. RSHG revealed the polar Si-B and Ge-B bonds formed during annealing. Synchrotron XRD provided the structure and strain changes of BSG. Secondary-ion mass spectrometer profiles provided the species distribution, which was used to examine the results of multi-optical method. Furthermore, double-layered BSG (DBSG) with different B concentrations were analyzed using the multi-optical method. Results revealed that Ge aggregated in the homogeneous interface of DBSG, and that B dopants in BSG served as carrier providers that strongly influenced the BSG structure. However, BSG with excessive B concentration was unstable and increased the B content (SiB3) through metallization. For BSG with a suitable B concentration, the formation of Si-B and Ge-B bonds suppressed the diffusion of Ge from SiGe, thereby reducing the possibility of Ge loss and further B pipe-up in the heavily doped S/D region.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering