Submarine canyons are deep incisions observed along most of the world’s continental margins. Their topographic relief is as dramatic as that of any canyon or river valley on land but is hidden beneath the surface of the ocean. Our knowledge of canyons has therefore come primarily from remote sensing and sampling, and has involved contributions from various oceanographic disciplines. Canyons are a critical link between coastal and shelf waters and abyssal depths; water masses, sediment, nutrients, and even litter and pollutants are carried through them. Advances in technology continue to provide new insights into canyon environments by pushing the frontier of deep marine observations and measurements. In this chapter we describe the main geomorphic features of submarine canyons and what is known about their formation and the processes that shape them. We also consider submarine gullies, which are small valleys commonly found within or alongside submarine canyons on the continental slope and may represent an incipient stage of canyon development.