Although 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is classified as a human carcinogen, TCDD only induced oxidative DNA damages. In our present study, we combined TCDD with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) to investigate their tumorigenic effects on lung tumor formation in A/J mice. Application of NNK at a tumorigenic dose (2. mg/mouse) induced lung adenoma in both male and female A/J mice. Neither application of NNK at a non-tumorigenic dose (1. mg/mouse) nor repeated application of TCDD alone increased tumor incidence. Following the single injection of NNK at a non-tumorigenic dose (1. mg/mouse), repeated application of TCDD significantly increased the lung tumor incidence in female, but not in male, A/J mice 24 weeks later. Utilizing the real-time RT-PCR array, we found that P16 mRNA was significantly reduced in female lung, but not male lung, of NNK/TCDD co-treated A/J mice. With immunohistochemical staining, we confirmed that nuclear P16 protein was reduced in the lungs of NNK/TCDD co-treated female mice. These data suggest that P16 reduction at least partially contributed to synergistic effects of TCDD in lung tumorigenesis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis