The 762 nm emissions of sprites

C. L. Kuo, S. C. Chang, L. J. Lee, T. Y. Huang, Bing-Chih Chen, Han-Tzong Su, Rue-Ron Hsu, D. D. Sentman, H. U. Frey, S. B. Mende, Y. Takahashi, L. C. Lee

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Abstract

We report the 762 nm emissions in sprites recorded by the ISUAL experiment onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The 762 nm imager filter is centered at 763.3 nm with a 7 nm bandwidth at 50% transmittance. Sprite emissions in this passband include the N2 first positive (1PN2) bands, (2, 0) and (3, 1), the O2 atmospheric (atm) band (0, 0), and the hydroxyl (4, 0) emissions. Because these mixed emissions cannot be resolved in the 762 nm narrowband filter, a zero-dimensional plasma chemistry model is used to estimate the expected relative intensities of these emission bands in sprites. The computed 1PN2 brightness in a single streamer is 1.4 MR and 2.6 kR for the O2 atm band emissions at frame integration times of 30 ms. In the 762 nm passband, the 1PN2 emissions are the dominant emissions in sprites, and the ratio of 1PN2 to O2 atmospheric emissions is ∼500, while the hydroxyl emissions can be neglected. In this ISUAL 762 nm campaign, the brightest sprite out of the four recorded events has possible O2 atm band emissions that lasted more than 90 ms, and its observed brightness is consistent with the model prediction. Even though the lightning 762 nm emissions are strongly absorbed by O2 below 60 km, the ISUAL observed parent lightning emissions in this passband are still more than a factor of two brighter than those from ISUAL observed sprites. Hence for spacecraft nadir TLE detection missions, 762 nm bands may not be used as the sole signature to identify sprites, and auxiliary emission bands are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA01310
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume116
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jan 1

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sprite
Lightning
Hydroxyl Radical
Luminance
Image sensors
Spacecraft
Satellites
Plasmas
Bandwidth
lightning
Experiments
hydroxyl emission
brightness
filters
plasma chemistry
filter
airglow
emissions factor
blood chemistry
transmittance

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Kuo, C. L., Chang, S. C., Lee, L. J., Huang, T. Y., Chen, B-C., Su, H-T., ... Lee, L. C. (2011). The 762 nm emissions of sprites. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 116(1), [A01310]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JA015949
Kuo, C. L. ; Chang, S. C. ; Lee, L. J. ; Huang, T. Y. ; Chen, Bing-Chih ; Su, Han-Tzong ; Hsu, Rue-Ron ; Sentman, D. D. ; Frey, H. U. ; Mende, S. B. ; Takahashi, Y. ; Lee, L. C. / The 762 nm emissions of sprites. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2011 ; Vol. 116, No. 1.
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abstract = "We report the 762 nm emissions in sprites recorded by the ISUAL experiment onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The 762 nm imager filter is centered at 763.3 nm with a 7 nm bandwidth at 50{\%} transmittance. Sprite emissions in this passband include the N2 first positive (1PN2) bands, (2, 0) and (3, 1), the O2 atmospheric (atm) band (0, 0), and the hydroxyl (4, 0) emissions. Because these mixed emissions cannot be resolved in the 762 nm narrowband filter, a zero-dimensional plasma chemistry model is used to estimate the expected relative intensities of these emission bands in sprites. The computed 1PN2 brightness in a single streamer is 1.4 MR and 2.6 kR for the O2 atm band emissions at frame integration times of 30 ms. In the 762 nm passband, the 1PN2 emissions are the dominant emissions in sprites, and the ratio of 1PN2 to O2 atmospheric emissions is ∼500, while the hydroxyl emissions can be neglected. In this ISUAL 762 nm campaign, the brightest sprite out of the four recorded events has possible O2 atm band emissions that lasted more than 90 ms, and its observed brightness is consistent with the model prediction. Even though the lightning 762 nm emissions are strongly absorbed by O2 below 60 km, the ISUAL observed parent lightning emissions in this passband are still more than a factor of two brighter than those from ISUAL observed sprites. Hence for spacecraft nadir TLE detection missions, 762 nm bands may not be used as the sole signature to identify sprites, and auxiliary emission bands are needed.",
author = "Kuo, {C. L.} and Chang, {S. C.} and Lee, {L. J.} and Huang, {T. Y.} and Bing-Chih Chen and Han-Tzong Su and Rue-Ron Hsu and Sentman, {D. D.} and Frey, {H. U.} and Mende, {S. B.} and Y. Takahashi and Lee, {L. C.}",
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Kuo, CL, Chang, SC, Lee, LJ, Huang, TY, Chen, B-C, Su, H-T, Hsu, R-R, Sentman, DD, Frey, HU, Mende, SB, Takahashi, Y & Lee, LC 2011, 'The 762 nm emissions of sprites', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol. 116, no. 1, A01310. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JA015949

The 762 nm emissions of sprites. / Kuo, C. L.; Chang, S. C.; Lee, L. J.; Huang, T. Y.; Chen, Bing-Chih; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Sentman, D. D.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L. C.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, No. 1, A01310, 01.01.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Kuo, C. L.

AU - Chang, S. C.

AU - Lee, L. J.

AU - Huang, T. Y.

AU - Chen, Bing-Chih

AU - Su, Han-Tzong

AU - Hsu, Rue-Ron

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N2 - We report the 762 nm emissions in sprites recorded by the ISUAL experiment onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The 762 nm imager filter is centered at 763.3 nm with a 7 nm bandwidth at 50% transmittance. Sprite emissions in this passband include the N2 first positive (1PN2) bands, (2, 0) and (3, 1), the O2 atmospheric (atm) band (0, 0), and the hydroxyl (4, 0) emissions. Because these mixed emissions cannot be resolved in the 762 nm narrowband filter, a zero-dimensional plasma chemistry model is used to estimate the expected relative intensities of these emission bands in sprites. The computed 1PN2 brightness in a single streamer is 1.4 MR and 2.6 kR for the O2 atm band emissions at frame integration times of 30 ms. In the 762 nm passband, the 1PN2 emissions are the dominant emissions in sprites, and the ratio of 1PN2 to O2 atmospheric emissions is ∼500, while the hydroxyl emissions can be neglected. In this ISUAL 762 nm campaign, the brightest sprite out of the four recorded events has possible O2 atm band emissions that lasted more than 90 ms, and its observed brightness is consistent with the model prediction. Even though the lightning 762 nm emissions are strongly absorbed by O2 below 60 km, the ISUAL observed parent lightning emissions in this passband are still more than a factor of two brighter than those from ISUAL observed sprites. Hence for spacecraft nadir TLE detection missions, 762 nm bands may not be used as the sole signature to identify sprites, and auxiliary emission bands are needed.

AB - We report the 762 nm emissions in sprites recorded by the ISUAL experiment onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The 762 nm imager filter is centered at 763.3 nm with a 7 nm bandwidth at 50% transmittance. Sprite emissions in this passband include the N2 first positive (1PN2) bands, (2, 0) and (3, 1), the O2 atmospheric (atm) band (0, 0), and the hydroxyl (4, 0) emissions. Because these mixed emissions cannot be resolved in the 762 nm narrowband filter, a zero-dimensional plasma chemistry model is used to estimate the expected relative intensities of these emission bands in sprites. The computed 1PN2 brightness in a single streamer is 1.4 MR and 2.6 kR for the O2 atm band emissions at frame integration times of 30 ms. In the 762 nm passband, the 1PN2 emissions are the dominant emissions in sprites, and the ratio of 1PN2 to O2 atmospheric emissions is ∼500, while the hydroxyl emissions can be neglected. In this ISUAL 762 nm campaign, the brightest sprite out of the four recorded events has possible O2 atm band emissions that lasted more than 90 ms, and its observed brightness is consistent with the model prediction. Even though the lightning 762 nm emissions are strongly absorbed by O2 below 60 km, the ISUAL observed parent lightning emissions in this passband are still more than a factor of two brighter than those from ISUAL observed sprites. Hence for spacecraft nadir TLE detection missions, 762 nm bands may not be used as the sole signature to identify sprites, and auxiliary emission bands are needed.

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