Alpha actinins (ACTNs) are known for their ability to modulate cytoskeletal organization and cell motility by cross-linking actin filaments. We show here that ACTN4 harbors a functional LXXLL receptor interaction motif, interacts with nuclear receptors in vitro and in mammalian cells, and potently activates transcription mediated by nuclear receptors. Whereas overexpression of ACTN4 potentiates estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated transcription in transient transfection reporter assays, knockdown of ACTN4 decreases it. In contrast, histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) inhibits estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated transcription. Moreover, the ACTN4 mutant lacking the CaM (calmodulin)-like domain that is required for its interaction with HDAC7 fails to activate transcription by ERα. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrate that maximal associations of ACTN4 and HDAC7 with the pS2 promoter are mutually exclusive. Knockdown of ACTN4 significantly decreases the expression of ER- target genes including pS2 and PR and also affects cell proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with or without hormone, whereas knockdown of HDAC7 exhibits opposite effects. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type ACTN4, but not the mutants defective in interacting with ERα or HDAC7, results in an increase in pS2 and PR mRNA accumulation in a hormone- dependent manner. In summary, we have identified ACTN4 as a novel, atypical coactivator that regulates transcription networks to control cell growth.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology