Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme consisting of a scaffold subunit (A), a catalytic subunit (C), and a variable regulatory subunit (B). The regulatoryBsubunits determine the substrate specificity and subcellular localization of the PP2A holoenzyme. Here, we demonstrate that the subcellular localization of the B56γ3 regulatory subunit is regulated in a cell cycle-specific manner. Notably, B56γ3 becomes enriched in the nucleus at the G1/S border and in S phase. The S phase-specific nuclear enrichment of B56γ3 is accompanied by increases of nuclear A and C subunits and nuclear PP2A activity. Overexpression of B56γ3 promotes nuclear localization of the A and C subunits, whereas silencing both B56γ2 and B56γ3 blocks the S phase-specific increase in the nuclear localization and activity of PP2A. In NIH3T3 cells, B56γ3 overexpression reduces p27 phosphorylation at Thr-187, concomitantly elevates p27 protein levels, delays the G1 to S transition, and retards cell proliferation. Consistently, knockdown of endogenous B56γ3 expression reduces p27 protein levels and increases cell proliferation in HeLa cells. These findings demonstrate that the dynamic nuclear distribution of the B56γ3 regulatory subunit controls nuclear PP2A activity, which regulates cell cycle controllers, such as p27, to restrain cell cycle progression, and may be responsible for the tumor suppressor function of PP2A.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology