The design and evaluation of a multimodal ubiquitous learning application for EFL writers

Vivien Lin, Gi Zen Liu, Hao Chiang Koong Lin, Yu Hsuan Lin, Min Chai Hsieh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study presents the design of a multimodal ubiquitous learning application (MULA) with different augmenting effects for enhancing English as a Foreign Language (EFL) academic writing instruction. In a pilot project, 17 undergraduates engaged in ubiquitous learning and writing at a green building and provided survey responses and interview feedback about their ubiquitous writing experience. The survey results were categorized into perceptions about (a) the ubiquitous learning mode, (b) effective writing facilitation, (c) motivation, self-efficacy, and attitude, (d) self-regulation, and (e) system usability. Interview results further illustrated how using MULA led to positive and negative experiences during ubiquitous writing. A final synthesis on the findings led to the identification of seven affordances that made MULA a potential tool for enhancing writing instruction in EFL settings. The seven affordances were considered effective design elements for multimodal context-aware ubiquitous learning that served the purpose of enriching English academic writing instruction. Implications about creating multimodal ubiquitous learning applications in higher education are also provided.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDigital Creativity
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics

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