Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure the social smoking motives of adult male smokers using a Chinese social context. Design: Three phases were conducted between February 2006 and May 2009. First, the initial instrument development was guided by a literature review, interviews with smokers, and item analysis. Second, the validity and reliability of the refined scale were tested. The factor structures of the Social Smoking Measures (SSM-12) scale were validated. Results: The final scale consists of 12 items. Two factors that account for 49.2% of the variance emerged from the exploratory factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was.88, and test–retest reliability was.82. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the SSM model was a two-correlated factor. Conclusion: Field testing revealed the SSM-12 to be a reliable and valid Chinese-language instrument to measure social smoking motives, which can be used to guide nursing interventions that support culturally and socially appropriate smoking cessation programs.
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