The effect of calcination conditions on the morphology, the architecture and the photo-electrical properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays

Rui Liu, Liang Sheng Qiang, Wein Duo Yang, Hsin Yi Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were successfully prepared by electrochemical anodization in a formamide-based electrolyte containing 0.5 wt.% NH4F and 2 vol.% H2O. The effects of the calcining temperature, the calcining time and the heating rate on the formation of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were investigated in detail. The morphological changes and phase transformations of the TiO2 nanotubes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the calcining temperature and the calcining time determined the crystal phase, while the heating rate was only beneficial to altering the crystallinity. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used to examine changes in the band gap energy. For applications to dye sensitized solar cells, a maximum conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 °C for 2 h with a heating rate of 10 °C/min, which is attributed to the highly crystalline anatase and the lower surface defect concentrations of the nanotubes. The optimum calcination conditions help to retard the electron recombination and allow higher dye absorption capacities, thereby increasing Voc and Jsc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1458-1467
Number of pages10
JournalMaterials Research Bulletin
Volume48
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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