The effect of sodium methacrylate on the soapless emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and n‐butyl acrylate

Ting‐Chung ‐C Pan, Jen‐Feng ‐F Kuo, Chuh‐Yung ‐Y Chen

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10 Citations (Scopus)


The soapless emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n‐butyl acrylate (BA) containing various concentrations of sodium methacrylate (NaMA) or methacrylic acid (MMA) is studied. The hydrosoluble yields in final latexes are not larger than 1.3–5%, depending on the concentration of NaMA used. Below 25% conversion, the change of conversion with reaction time follows the square rule and the particle size is proportional to the 2/3 power of time. Above 25% conversion, serious gel effect occurs, and the conversion follows the seventh power on time and the growth of particle diameter obeys the 2.5 power on time. The multiple glass transition (Tg) occur below 20% conversion, where monomer droplets exist. NaMA added induces more Tgs. The effect of molecular weight of the copolymers obtained on Tg (even the molecular weight distributions were shown to be shouldertype bimodal) is estimated to be insignificant. Thus, the heterogeneity of copolymer compositions for multiple Tgs is ascribed to be caused from neither the molecular weight heterogeneity nor the shifts in compositions due to the difference of the monomer reactivity ratios. Referring to the results mentioned, we assume the sublayer surrounding the particle, rich with SO4 and COO groups, and the concentration gradients of monomers in particles to illustrate particle morphology. In addition, the relatively hydrophilic sublayer is proposed to be closely relative with the occurrence of the composition heterogeneity in particles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)709-718
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1991 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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