The effects of plasma-activated water on heavy metals accumulation in water spinach

Chih Yao Hou, Ting Khai Kong, Chia Min Lin, Hsiu Ling Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Toxic heavy metals accumulate in crops from the environment through different routes and may interfere with biochemical reactions in humans, causing serious health consequences. Plasma technology has been assessed for the promotion of seed germination and plant growth in several past studies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the growth rate of plants can be increased with the application of non-thermal plasma, as well as to reduce the accumulation of heavy metals in leafy vegetables (water spinach). In this study, several kinds of plasma treatments were applied, such as treatment on the seeds (PTS + NTW), irrigation water (NTS + PAW) or both (PTS + PAW). The results of the study showed that the heavy metals accumulated in water spinach were affected by the heavy metals available in the soil. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Cd in water spinach decreased from 0.864 to 0.543 after plasma treatment in seed or irri-gating water, while the BCF of Pb was low and did not show any significant changes. Therefore, the results suggest that plasma treatment may suppress Cd absorption, but not for Pb. In this study, plasma treatment did not help to improve the product yield of water spinach planted in Cd-added soil. In the future, fertilizers can be used to supply nutrients that are not provided by plasma-acti-vated water to support the growth of water spinach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5304
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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