Background: Since the global use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) has become the most common bacterial cause of lower respiratory tract infections among children. Monitoring the changing epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance rates of this organism is important for MP clinical management. Methods: This study characterizes key features of MP during the 2019–2020 epidemic in children in Taiwan. The cohort included all hospitalized children under 18 years of age with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed community-acquired mycoplasma pneumonia (CAMP) in southern Taiwan. Macrolide resistance was identified by mutations in domain V of MP 23S rRNA. Severe disease referred to symptoms warranting oxygen therapy, septic shock, or intensive care unit admission. Results: Among 495 LRTI patients, 195 (39.4%) had CAMP, of which 106 (54.4%) had concurrent serological evidence of MP infection. The diagnostic sensitivity of IgM in the acute phase was 65.6%. CAMP case numbers were highest from July 2019 to January 2020. The most common clinical presentations of CAMP were fever (99.0%), cough (99.0%), and coryza (31.8%). Despite a high rate of macrolide resistance (88.1%), macrolide-resistant MP (MRMP) did not differ from macrolide-sensitive MP (MSMP) in clinical course or severity. Delayed administration of effective antimicrobial treatment was also associated with severe disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Early diagnosis and determination of MRMP are needed for effective management of MP infection.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases