Background: This study aims to analyze the fertility preservation decision-making and the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) in older adolescents (age 15-19 years) with nonmosaic Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and azoospermia in a male reproductive clinic, and to determine the accumulated SRR in older adolescents by literature review. Methods: Older adolescents with nonmosaic KS and azoospermia referred for hypogonadism and fertility concerns were enrolled. Reproductive counseling and fertility preservation options were offered to patients/parents. The acceptability and the reasons affecting the reproductive decision-making were analyzed. Patients/parents who agreed on fertility preservation received microdissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) and cryopreservation. A comprehensive literature review regarding the SRRs in older adolescents with KS was conducted. Results: A total of eight older adolescents were enrolled. After fertility preservation counseling, three patients/parents (37.5%) agreed to receive mTESE, and spermatozoa were successfully retrieved in two. "Lack of interest" and "inconsistent sperm retrieval result" were the main reasons for refusal. A total of 89 older adolescents from nine articles, and ours were collected for SRR analysis. Most of the reports had a limited number of cases, and none of them described the acceptance rate of sperm retrieval in adolescents. Forty-three out of 89 older adolescents (48.3%) had successful sperm retrieval, and there was no significant difference in the SRR between the mTESE and conventional TESE. Conclusion: Successful testicular sperm retrieval in older adolescents with KS is not superior to those reported in adults. Adolescents and their parents should undergo a detailed reproductive consultation process and shared decision-making discussion before considering testicular sperm retrieval.
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