Groundwater flow and the associated surface water flow are potential negative factors on underground tunnels. Early detection of environmental impacts on water resources is of significant importance to planning, design and construction of tunnel projects, as early detection can minimize accidents and project delays during construction. The groundwater modeling software package Groundwater Modeling System (GMS), which supports the groundwater numerical codes MODFLOW and FEMWATER, was utilized to determine the impact of tunneling excavation on the hydrogeological environment in a regional area around the tunnel and a local hot springs area, at the "Tseng-Wen Reservoir Transbasin Diversion Project", in Taiwan. A hydrogeological conceptual model was first developed to simplify structures related to the site topography, geology and geological structure. The MODFLOW code was then applied to simulate groundwater flow pattern for the hydrogeological conceptual model in the tunnel area. The automated parameter estimation method was applied to calibrate groundwater level fluctuation and hydrogeological parameters in the region. Calibration of the model demonstrated that errors between simulated and monitored results are smaller than allowable errors. The study also observed that tunneling excavation caused groundwater to flow toward the tunnel. No obvious changes in the groundwater flow field due to tunnel construction were observed far away in the surrounding regions. Furthermore, the FEMWATER code for solving 3-D groundwater flow problems, in which hydrogeological characteristics are integrated into a geographic information system (GIS), is applied to evaluate the impact of tunnel construction on an adjacent hot spring. Simulation results indicated that the groundwater drawdown rate is less than the groundwater recharge rate, and the change to the groundwater table after tunnel construction was insignificant for the hot spring area. Finally, the groundwater flow obtained via the GMS indicated that the hydrogeological conceptual model can estimate the possible quantity of tunnel inflow and the impact of tunnel construction on the regional and local groundwater resources regime of the transbasin diversion project.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology