Although most H. pylori infectors are asymptomatic, some may develop serious disease, such as gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric high-grade B cell lymphoma and peptic ulcer disease. Epidemiological and basic studies have provided evidence that infection with H. pylori carrying specific virulence factors can lead to more severe outcome. The virulence factors that are associated with gastric adenocarcinoma development include the presence, expression intensity and types of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA, especially EPIYA-D type and multiple copies of EPIYA-C) and type IV secretion system (CagL polymorphism) responsible for its translocation into the host cells, the genotypes of vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA, s1/i1/m1 type), and expression intensity of blood group antigen binding adhesin (BabA, low-producer or chimeric with BabB). The presence of CagA is also related to gastric high-grade B cell lymphoma occurrence. Peptic ulcer disease is closely associated with cagA-genopositive, vacA s1/m1 genotype, babA2-genopositive (encodes BabA protein), presence of duodenal ulcer promoting gene cluster (dupA cluster) and induced by contact with epithelium gene A1 (iceA1), and expression status of outer inflammatory protein (OipA). The prevalence of these virulence factors is diverse among H. pylori isolated from different geographic areas and ethnic groups, which may explain the differences in disease incidences. For example, in East Asia where gastric cancer incidence is highest worldwide, almost all H. pylori isolates were cagA genopositive, vacA s1/i1/m1 and BabA-expressing. Therefore, selection of appropriate virulence markers and testing methods are important when using them to determine risk of diseases. This review summarizes the evidences of H. pylori virulence factors in relation with gastroduodenal diseases and discusses the geographic differences and appropriate methods of analyzing these virulence markers.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology
- Biochemistry, medical
- Pharmacology (medical)