Key message: Plant-deleterious microbial volatiles activate the transactivation of hypoxia, MAMPs and wound responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. AtMKK1 and AtMKK3 are involved in the plant-deleterious microbial volatiles-induced defense responses. Abstract: Microbial volatile compounds (mVCs) are a collection of volatile metabolites from microorganisms with biological effects on all living organisms. mVCs function as gaseous modulators of plant growth and plant health. In this study, the defense events induced by plant-deleterious mVCs were investigated. Enterobacter aerogenes VCs lead to growth inhibition and immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. E. aerogenes VCs negatively regulate auxin response and transport gene expression in the root tip, as evidenced by decreased expression of DR5::GFP, PIN3::PIN3-GFP and PIN4::PIN4-GFP. Data from transcriptional analysis suggests that E. aerogenes VCs trigger hypoxia response, innate immune responses and metabolic processes. In addition, the transcript levels of the genes involved in the synthetic pathways of antimicrobial metabolites camalexin and coumarin are increased after the E. aerogenes VCs exposure. Moreover, we demonstrate that MKK1 serves as a regulator of camalexin biosynthesis gene expression in response to E. aerogenes VCs, while MKK3 is the regulator of coumarin biosynthesis gene expression. Additionally, MKK1 and MKK3 mediate the E. aerogenes VCs-induced callose deposition. Collectively, these studies provide molecular insights into immune responses by plant-deleterious mVCs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science