The movement patterns used to rise from a supine position by children with developmental delay and age-related differences in these

Bih Jen Hsue, Yun Er Wang, Yung Jung Chen

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The purposes of this study were to determine (1) movement patterns and strategies of children with mild to moderate developmental delay (DD) used to rise up and how they differ from those used by age-matched children with typical development (TD), (2) whether the movement patterns differ with age in children with DD, and (3) to determine the developmental sequences for the UE, AX and LE in children with DD and whether they are different from those used by children with TD. Sixty six children with TD and 31 children with DD aged two to six years were recruited. Peabody Developmental Motor Scale II (PDMS-2) was used to determine the motor performance level. The participants were recorded during rising for at least five repetitions. Two trained pediatric physical therapists viewed each video recording and classified the movement patterns of the upper extremities (UE), trunk/axial (AX) and lower extremities (LE) regions using descriptive categories developed by previous researchers. The DD and TD groups were further divided into four subgroups each using a one-year interval. The percentage of occurrence of the each UE, AX and LE movement was determined and compared across subgroups, and between each age-matched pair of TD and DD groups. The results demonstrated that the participants in the TD group clearly followed the proposed developmental sequence and the children with DD followed the developmental sequences but with different maturation speeds and greater variability, especially at the age of three to five years. The most common movement patterns used by the children in each of the DD subgroups were at least one developmental categorical pattern behind those used by the age-matched children with TD before five years old, except for the LE region. In the DD group, the movement patterns had moderate to high correlation with the child's motor performance level, indicating that the children with better motor performances used more developmentally advanced patterns in comparison with those with lower scores. However, besides motor maturity, numerous other intrinsic/extrinsic factors may affect the child's performance of this task. The information obtained in this study would assist therapists when working with the children with DD, so that they can provide individualized treatment rather than guiding all such children toward a single, mature pattern.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2205-2214
Number of pages10
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sep

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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