Smartphones have become indispensable in our daily lives. Their various embedded sensors have inspired innovations in mobile applications\-especially for indoor navigation. However, the accuracy, reliability and generalizability of navigation all continue to struggle in environments lacking a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) is a popular method for indoor pedestrian navigation. Unfortunately, due to its fundamental principles, even a small navigation error will amplify itself, step by step, generally leading to the need for supplementary resources to maintain navigation accuracy. Virtually all mobile devices and most robots contain a basic camera sensor, which has led to the popularity of image-based localization, and vice versa. However, all of the image-based localization requires continuous images for uninterrupted positioning. Furthermore, the solutions provided by either image-based localization or a PDR are usually in a relative coordinate system. Therefore, this research proposes a system, which uses space resection-aided PDR with geo-referenced images of a previously mapped environment to enable seamless navigation and solve the shortcomings of PDR and image-based localization, and evaluates the performance of space resection with different assumptions using a smartphone. The indoor mobile mapping system (IMMS) is used for the effective production of geo-referenced images. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed algorithm is suitable for universal pedestrian indoor navigation, achieving the accuracy required for commercial applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Computers in Earth Sciences
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)