The recurrent bleeding risk of a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy can be indicated by high Rockall scores ≥ 6

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Abstract

Background: The Forrest classification is widely applied to guide endoscopic hemostasis for peptic ulcer bleeding. Accordingly, practice guidelines suggest medical treatment only for ulcer with a Forrest IIc lesion because it has low rebleeding risk even without endoscopic therapy, ranging from 0 to 13%. However, the risk ranges widely and it is unclear who is at risk of rebleeding with such a lesion. This study assessed whether the Rockall score, which evaluates patients holistically, could indicate the risk of recurrent bleeding among patients with a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy. Methods: Patients who had peptic ulcer bleeding with Ia-IIb lesions received endoscopic hemostasis at the primary endoscopy, and they were enrolled if their Ia-IIb lesions had been fading to IIc at the second-look endoscopy after 48- to 72-h intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. Primary outcomes were rebleeding during the 4th–14th day and 4th–28th day after the first bleeding episode. Results: The prospective cohort study enrolled 140 patients, who were divided into a Rockall scores ≥ 6 group or a Rockall scores < 6 group. The rebleeding rates in the Rockall scores ≥ 6 group and the Rockall scores < 6 group during the 4th–14th day and the 4th–28th day were 13/70 (18.6%) versus 2/70 (2.9%), p = 0.003 and 17/70 (24.3%) versus 3/70 (4.3%), p = 0.001, respectively, based on an intention-to-treat analysis and 5/62 (8.1%) versus 0/68 (0%), p = 0.023 and 6/59 (10.2%) versus 0/67 (0%), p = 0.009, respectively, based on a per-protocol analysis. The Kaplan–Meier curves showed that the Rockall scores ≥ 6 group had a significantly lower cumulative rebleeding-free proportion than the Rockall scores < 6 group (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Combined Rockall scores ≥ 6 on arrival with a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy can identify patients at risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding following initial endoscopic and intravenous PPI treatment. Trial registration Trial registration identifier: NCT01591083.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSurgical Endoscopy
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1

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Endoscopy
Hemorrhage
Peptic Ulcer
Endoscopic Hemostasis
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Intention to Treat Analysis
Practice Guidelines
Ulcer
Cohort Studies
Therapeutics
Prospective Studies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery

Cite this

@article{11c6adc6f9cf43838c4ade9a335ba779,
title = "The recurrent bleeding risk of a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy can be indicated by high Rockall scores ≥ 6",
abstract = "Background: The Forrest classification is widely applied to guide endoscopic hemostasis for peptic ulcer bleeding. Accordingly, practice guidelines suggest medical treatment only for ulcer with a Forrest IIc lesion because it has low rebleeding risk even without endoscopic therapy, ranging from 0 to 13{\%}. However, the risk ranges widely and it is unclear who is at risk of rebleeding with such a lesion. This study assessed whether the Rockall score, which evaluates patients holistically, could indicate the risk of recurrent bleeding among patients with a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy. Methods: Patients who had peptic ulcer bleeding with Ia-IIb lesions received endoscopic hemostasis at the primary endoscopy, and they were enrolled if their Ia-IIb lesions had been fading to IIc at the second-look endoscopy after 48- to 72-h intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. Primary outcomes were rebleeding during the 4th–14th day and 4th–28th day after the first bleeding episode. Results: The prospective cohort study enrolled 140 patients, who were divided into a Rockall scores ≥ 6 group or a Rockall scores < 6 group. The rebleeding rates in the Rockall scores ≥ 6 group and the Rockall scores < 6 group during the 4th–14th day and the 4th–28th day were 13/70 (18.6{\%}) versus 2/70 (2.9{\%}), p = 0.003 and 17/70 (24.3{\%}) versus 3/70 (4.3{\%}), p = 0.001, respectively, based on an intention-to-treat analysis and 5/62 (8.1{\%}) versus 0/68 (0{\%}), p = 0.023 and 6/59 (10.2{\%}) versus 0/67 (0{\%}), p = 0.009, respectively, based on a per-protocol analysis. The Kaplan–Meier curves showed that the Rockall scores ≥ 6 group had a significantly lower cumulative rebleeding-free proportion than the Rockall scores < 6 group (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Combined Rockall scores ≥ 6 on arrival with a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy can identify patients at risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding following initial endoscopic and intravenous PPI treatment. Trial registration Trial registration identifier: NCT01591083.",
author = "Er-Hsiang Yang and Chung-Tai Wu and Kuo, {Hsin Yu} and Wei-Yiing Chen and Bor-Shyang Sheu and Hsiu-Chi Cheng",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s00464-019-06919-3",
language = "English",
journal = "Surgical Endoscopy",
issn = "0930-2794",
publisher = "Springer New York",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The recurrent bleeding risk of a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy can be indicated by high Rockall scores ≥ 6

AU - Yang, Er-Hsiang

AU - Wu, Chung-Tai

AU - Kuo, Hsin Yu

AU - Chen, Wei-Yiing

AU - Sheu, Bor-Shyang

AU - Cheng, Hsiu-Chi

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: The Forrest classification is widely applied to guide endoscopic hemostasis for peptic ulcer bleeding. Accordingly, practice guidelines suggest medical treatment only for ulcer with a Forrest IIc lesion because it has low rebleeding risk even without endoscopic therapy, ranging from 0 to 13%. However, the risk ranges widely and it is unclear who is at risk of rebleeding with such a lesion. This study assessed whether the Rockall score, which evaluates patients holistically, could indicate the risk of recurrent bleeding among patients with a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy. Methods: Patients who had peptic ulcer bleeding with Ia-IIb lesions received endoscopic hemostasis at the primary endoscopy, and they were enrolled if their Ia-IIb lesions had been fading to IIc at the second-look endoscopy after 48- to 72-h intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. Primary outcomes were rebleeding during the 4th–14th day and 4th–28th day after the first bleeding episode. Results: The prospective cohort study enrolled 140 patients, who were divided into a Rockall scores ≥ 6 group or a Rockall scores < 6 group. The rebleeding rates in the Rockall scores ≥ 6 group and the Rockall scores < 6 group during the 4th–14th day and the 4th–28th day were 13/70 (18.6%) versus 2/70 (2.9%), p = 0.003 and 17/70 (24.3%) versus 3/70 (4.3%), p = 0.001, respectively, based on an intention-to-treat analysis and 5/62 (8.1%) versus 0/68 (0%), p = 0.023 and 6/59 (10.2%) versus 0/67 (0%), p = 0.009, respectively, based on a per-protocol analysis. The Kaplan–Meier curves showed that the Rockall scores ≥ 6 group had a significantly lower cumulative rebleeding-free proportion than the Rockall scores < 6 group (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Combined Rockall scores ≥ 6 on arrival with a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy can identify patients at risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding following initial endoscopic and intravenous PPI treatment. Trial registration Trial registration identifier: NCT01591083.

AB - Background: The Forrest classification is widely applied to guide endoscopic hemostasis for peptic ulcer bleeding. Accordingly, practice guidelines suggest medical treatment only for ulcer with a Forrest IIc lesion because it has low rebleeding risk even without endoscopic therapy, ranging from 0 to 13%. However, the risk ranges widely and it is unclear who is at risk of rebleeding with such a lesion. This study assessed whether the Rockall score, which evaluates patients holistically, could indicate the risk of recurrent bleeding among patients with a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy. Methods: Patients who had peptic ulcer bleeding with Ia-IIb lesions received endoscopic hemostasis at the primary endoscopy, and they were enrolled if their Ia-IIb lesions had been fading to IIc at the second-look endoscopy after 48- to 72-h intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. Primary outcomes were rebleeding during the 4th–14th day and 4th–28th day after the first bleeding episode. Results: The prospective cohort study enrolled 140 patients, who were divided into a Rockall scores ≥ 6 group or a Rockall scores < 6 group. The rebleeding rates in the Rockall scores ≥ 6 group and the Rockall scores < 6 group during the 4th–14th day and the 4th–28th day were 13/70 (18.6%) versus 2/70 (2.9%), p = 0.003 and 17/70 (24.3%) versus 3/70 (4.3%), p = 0.001, respectively, based on an intention-to-treat analysis and 5/62 (8.1%) versus 0/68 (0%), p = 0.023 and 6/59 (10.2%) versus 0/67 (0%), p = 0.009, respectively, based on a per-protocol analysis. The Kaplan–Meier curves showed that the Rockall scores ≥ 6 group had a significantly lower cumulative rebleeding-free proportion than the Rockall scores < 6 group (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Combined Rockall scores ≥ 6 on arrival with a Forrest IIc lesion at the second-look endoscopy can identify patients at risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding following initial endoscopic and intravenous PPI treatment. Trial registration Trial registration identifier: NCT01591083.

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U2 - 10.1007/s00464-019-06919-3

DO - 10.1007/s00464-019-06919-3

M3 - Article

JO - Surgical Endoscopy

JF - Surgical Endoscopy

SN - 0930-2794

ER -