TIAM2S-positive microglia enhance inflammation and neurotoxicity through soluble ICAM-1-mediated immune priming

Chun Hsien Chu, Jia Shing Chen, Ya Ling Chan, Wei Jen Lu, Yi Te Huang, Pin Cheng Mao, Chun I. Sze, H. Sunny Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


TIAM Rac1-associated GEF 2 short form (TIAM2S) as an oncoprotein alters the immunity of peripheral immune cells to construct an inflammatory tumor microenvironment. However, its role in the activation of microglia, the primary innate immune cells of the brain, and neuroinflammation remains unknown. This study investigated the mechanism underlying TIAM2S shapes immune properties of microglia to facilitate neuron damage. Human microglial clone 3 cell line (HMC3) and human brain samples were applied to determine the presence of TIAM2S in microglia by western blots and double immunostaining. Furthermore, TIAM2S transgenic mice combined with multiple reconstituted primary neuron–glial culture systems and a cytokine array were performed to explore how TIAM2S shaped immune priming of microglia and participated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuron damage. TIAM2S protein was detectable in HMC3 cells and presented in a small portion (~11.1%) of microglia in human brains referred to as TIAM2S-positive microglia. With the property of secreted soluble factor-mediated immune priming, TIAM2S-positive microglia enhanced LPS-induced neuroinflammation and neural damage in vivo and in vitro. The gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) participated in neurotoxic immune priming of TIAM2S+ microglia. Together, this study demonstrated a novel TIAM2S-positive microglia subpopulation enhances inflammation and neurotoxicity through sICAM-1-mediated immune priming.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere23242
JournalFASEB Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Nov

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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