Dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) are severe complications of dengue virus (DV) infection. However, the pathogenesis of hemorrhage induced by dengue virus infection is poorly understood. Since endothelial cells play a pivotal role in the regulation of hemostasis, we studied the effect of DV infection on the production of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in vitro using both primary isolated endothelial cells, human umbilical cord veins cells, and a human microvascular endothelial cell line. DV infection significantly induced the secretion of tPA but not PAI-1 of human endothelial cells. In addition, tPA mRNA of endothelial cells was induced by DV as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Antibody against IL-6 but not control antibody inhibited DV-induced tPA production of endothelial cells. Furthermore, a good correlation between sera levels of IL-6 and tPA was found in DHF but not DF patients. These results suggest that IL-6 can regulate DV-induced tPA production of endothelial cells, which may play important roles in the pathogenic development of DHF/DSS.
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