Topological chiral crystals with helicoid-arc quantum states

Daniel S. Sanchez, Ilya Belopolski, Tyler A. Cochran, Xitong Xu, Jia Xin Yin, Guoqing Chang, Weiwei Xie, Kaustuv Manna, Vicky Süß, Cheng Yi Huang, Nasser Alidoust, Daniel Multer, Songtian S. Zhang, Nana Shumiya, Xirui Wang, Guang Qiang Wang, Tay Rong Chang, Claudia Felser, Su Yang Xu, Shuang JiaHsin Lin, M. Zahid Hasan

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The quantum behaviour of electrons in materials is the foundation of modern electronics and information technology 1–11 , and quantum materials with topological electronic and optical properties are essential for realizing quantized electronic responses that can be used for next generation technology. Here we report the first observation of topological quantum properties of chiral crystals 6,7 in the RhSi family. We find that this material class hosts a quantum phase of matter that exhibits nearly ideal topological surface properties originating from the crystals’ structural chirality. Electrons on the surface of these crystals show a highly unusual helicoid fermionic structure that spirals around two high-symmetry momenta, indicating electronic topological chirality. The existence of bulk multiply degenerate band fermions is guaranteed by the crystal symmetries; however, to determine the topological invariant or charge in these chiral crystals, it is essential to identify and study the helicoid topology of the arc states. The helicoid arcs that we observe on the surface characterize the topological charges of ±2, which arise from bulk higher-spin chiral fermions. These topological conductors exhibit giant Fermi arcs of maximum length (π), which are orders of magnitude larger than those found in known chiral Weyl fermion semimetals 5,8–11 . Our results demonstrate an electronic topological state of matter on structurally chiral crystals featuring helicoid-arc quantum states. Such exotic multifold chiral fermion semimetal states could be used to detect a quantized photogalvanic optical response, the chiral magnetic effect and other optoelectronic phenomena predicted for this class of materials 6 .

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)500-505
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume567
Issue number7749
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar 28

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Electrons
Technology
Surface Properties
Observation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Sanchez, D. S., Belopolski, I., Cochran, T. A., Xu, X., Yin, J. X., Chang, G., ... Hasan, M. Z. (2019). Topological chiral crystals with helicoid-arc quantum states. Nature, 567(7749), 500-505. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1037-2
Sanchez, Daniel S. ; Belopolski, Ilya ; Cochran, Tyler A. ; Xu, Xitong ; Yin, Jia Xin ; Chang, Guoqing ; Xie, Weiwei ; Manna, Kaustuv ; Süß, Vicky ; Huang, Cheng Yi ; Alidoust, Nasser ; Multer, Daniel ; Zhang, Songtian S. ; Shumiya, Nana ; Wang, Xirui ; Wang, Guang Qiang ; Chang, Tay Rong ; Felser, Claudia ; Xu, Su Yang ; Jia, Shuang ; Lin, Hsin ; Hasan, M. Zahid. / Topological chiral crystals with helicoid-arc quantum states. In: Nature. 2019 ; Vol. 567, No. 7749. pp. 500-505.
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abstract = "The quantum behaviour of electrons in materials is the foundation of modern electronics and information technology 1–11 , and quantum materials with topological electronic and optical properties are essential for realizing quantized electronic responses that can be used for next generation technology. Here we report the first observation of topological quantum properties of chiral crystals 6,7 in the RhSi family. We find that this material class hosts a quantum phase of matter that exhibits nearly ideal topological surface properties originating from the crystals’ structural chirality. Electrons on the surface of these crystals show a highly unusual helicoid fermionic structure that spirals around two high-symmetry momenta, indicating electronic topological chirality. The existence of bulk multiply degenerate band fermions is guaranteed by the crystal symmetries; however, to determine the topological invariant or charge in these chiral crystals, it is essential to identify and study the helicoid topology of the arc states. The helicoid arcs that we observe on the surface characterize the topological charges of ±2, which arise from bulk higher-spin chiral fermions. These topological conductors exhibit giant Fermi arcs of maximum length (π), which are orders of magnitude larger than those found in known chiral Weyl fermion semimetals 5,8–11 . Our results demonstrate an electronic topological state of matter on structurally chiral crystals featuring helicoid-arc quantum states. Such exotic multifold chiral fermion semimetal states could be used to detect a quantized photogalvanic optical response, the chiral magnetic effect and other optoelectronic phenomena predicted for this class of materials 6 .",
author = "Sanchez, {Daniel S.} and Ilya Belopolski and Cochran, {Tyler A.} and Xitong Xu and Yin, {Jia Xin} and Guoqing Chang and Weiwei Xie and Kaustuv Manna and Vicky S{\"u}{\ss} and Huang, {Cheng Yi} and Nasser Alidoust and Daniel Multer and Zhang, {Songtian S.} and Nana Shumiya and Xirui Wang and Wang, {Guang Qiang} and Chang, {Tay Rong} and Claudia Felser and Xu, {Su Yang} and Shuang Jia and Hsin Lin and Hasan, {M. Zahid}",
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Sanchez, DS, Belopolski, I, Cochran, TA, Xu, X, Yin, JX, Chang, G, Xie, W, Manna, K, Süß, V, Huang, CY, Alidoust, N, Multer, D, Zhang, SS, Shumiya, N, Wang, X, Wang, GQ, Chang, TR, Felser, C, Xu, SY, Jia, S, Lin, H & Hasan, MZ 2019, 'Topological chiral crystals with helicoid-arc quantum states', Nature, vol. 567, no. 7749, pp. 500-505. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1037-2

Topological chiral crystals with helicoid-arc quantum states. / Sanchez, Daniel S.; Belopolski, Ilya; Cochran, Tyler A.; Xu, Xitong; Yin, Jia Xin; Chang, Guoqing; Xie, Weiwei; Manna, Kaustuv; Süß, Vicky; Huang, Cheng Yi; Alidoust, Nasser; Multer, Daniel; Zhang, Songtian S.; Shumiya, Nana; Wang, Xirui; Wang, Guang Qiang; Chang, Tay Rong; Felser, Claudia; Xu, Su Yang; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid.

In: Nature, Vol. 567, No. 7749, 28.03.2019, p. 500-505.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

TY - JOUR

T1 - Topological chiral crystals with helicoid-arc quantum states

AU - Sanchez, Daniel S.

AU - Belopolski, Ilya

AU - Cochran, Tyler A.

AU - Xu, Xitong

AU - Yin, Jia Xin

AU - Chang, Guoqing

AU - Xie, Weiwei

AU - Manna, Kaustuv

AU - Süß, Vicky

AU - Huang, Cheng Yi

AU - Alidoust, Nasser

AU - Multer, Daniel

AU - Zhang, Songtian S.

AU - Shumiya, Nana

AU - Wang, Xirui

AU - Wang, Guang Qiang

AU - Chang, Tay Rong

AU - Felser, Claudia

AU - Xu, Su Yang

AU - Jia, Shuang

AU - Lin, Hsin

AU - Hasan, M. Zahid

PY - 2019/3/28

Y1 - 2019/3/28

N2 - The quantum behaviour of electrons in materials is the foundation of modern electronics and information technology 1–11 , and quantum materials with topological electronic and optical properties are essential for realizing quantized electronic responses that can be used for next generation technology. Here we report the first observation of topological quantum properties of chiral crystals 6,7 in the RhSi family. We find that this material class hosts a quantum phase of matter that exhibits nearly ideal topological surface properties originating from the crystals’ structural chirality. Electrons on the surface of these crystals show a highly unusual helicoid fermionic structure that spirals around two high-symmetry momenta, indicating electronic topological chirality. The existence of bulk multiply degenerate band fermions is guaranteed by the crystal symmetries; however, to determine the topological invariant or charge in these chiral crystals, it is essential to identify and study the helicoid topology of the arc states. The helicoid arcs that we observe on the surface characterize the topological charges of ±2, which arise from bulk higher-spin chiral fermions. These topological conductors exhibit giant Fermi arcs of maximum length (π), which are orders of magnitude larger than those found in known chiral Weyl fermion semimetals 5,8–11 . Our results demonstrate an electronic topological state of matter on structurally chiral crystals featuring helicoid-arc quantum states. Such exotic multifold chiral fermion semimetal states could be used to detect a quantized photogalvanic optical response, the chiral magnetic effect and other optoelectronic phenomena predicted for this class of materials 6 .

AB - The quantum behaviour of electrons in materials is the foundation of modern electronics and information technology 1–11 , and quantum materials with topological electronic and optical properties are essential for realizing quantized electronic responses that can be used for next generation technology. Here we report the first observation of topological quantum properties of chiral crystals 6,7 in the RhSi family. We find that this material class hosts a quantum phase of matter that exhibits nearly ideal topological surface properties originating from the crystals’ structural chirality. Electrons on the surface of these crystals show a highly unusual helicoid fermionic structure that spirals around two high-symmetry momenta, indicating electronic topological chirality. The existence of bulk multiply degenerate band fermions is guaranteed by the crystal symmetries; however, to determine the topological invariant or charge in these chiral crystals, it is essential to identify and study the helicoid topology of the arc states. The helicoid arcs that we observe on the surface characterize the topological charges of ±2, which arise from bulk higher-spin chiral fermions. These topological conductors exhibit giant Fermi arcs of maximum length (π), which are orders of magnitude larger than those found in known chiral Weyl fermion semimetals 5,8–11 . Our results demonstrate an electronic topological state of matter on structurally chiral crystals featuring helicoid-arc quantum states. Such exotic multifold chiral fermion semimetal states could be used to detect a quantized photogalvanic optical response, the chiral magnetic effect and other optoelectronic phenomena predicted for this class of materials 6 .

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Sanchez DS, Belopolski I, Cochran TA, Xu X, Yin JX, Chang G et al. Topological chiral crystals with helicoid-arc quantum states. Nature. 2019 Mar 28;567(7749):500-505. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1037-2