Toxicity assessment of electrochemical advanced oxidation process-treated groundwater from a gas station with petrochemical contamination

How Ran Chao, Danielle E. Que, Alisha C. Aquino, Yan You Gou, Lemmuel L. Tayo, Yi Hsien Lin, Ming Hsien Tsai, Fu Lin Hsu, I. Cheng Lu, Sheng Lun Lin, Natwat Srikhao, Cherng Gueih Shy, Kuo Lin Huang

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) is known for its efficient and fast degradation of organic pollutants in polluted water treatment. In this study, the EAOP using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied to treat two-season groundwater samples collected from four sampling wells (GS1 to GS4) with petrochemical contaminants including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, total organic compounds (TOC), and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) at a gas station in southern Taiwan. Moreover, toxicity tests (ATP, p53, and NF-κB bioassays) were performed to evaluate the biological responses of raw and EAOP-treated groundwater. Results show that the concentrations of chlorobenzene before and after EAOP treatment were all below its method detection limit. High degradation efficiencies were observed for MTBE (100%), benzene (100%), toluene (100%, except that of GS2 in the first season), TPH (94–97%, except that of GS4 in the first season), and TOC (85–99%). Cell viability for both the raw groundwater (81.2 ± 13.5%) and EAOP-treated samples (84.7 ± 11.7%) as detected using the ATP bioassay showed no significant difference (p = 0.715). A mean reduction in the DNA damage (739 to 165 ng DOX-equivalency L−1 (ng DOX-EQ. L−1)) and inflammatory response levels (460 to 157 ng TNFα-equivalency L−1 (ng TNFα-EQ. L−1)) were observed for EAOP-treated samples subjected to p53 and NF-κB bioassays. Overall, the significances of the average degradation efficiency, DNA damage, and inflammatory response before and after groundwater with EAOP treatment was observed to be significant (p < 0.05). p53 and NF-κB bioassays might be applied to assess ecotoxic risk in the environment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number473
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Environmental Science
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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