Bacterial infections are often treated inadequately. Sepsis, being one of its most severe forms, is a multi-layered, life-threatening syndrome induced by rampant immune responses, like cytokine storms, that leads to high morbidity and death of infected patients. Particularly, the current increment in resistant bacterial strains and the lack of creative antibiotics to counter such menace are central reasons to the worsening of the situation. To avoid the said crisis, the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were used to target cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), seems to have the most promise. These combine the ability of broad-spectrum bactericidal activity with low potential for induction of resistance. Inhibition of cytokine storms induced by activated immune cells has been considered a feasible treatment for in sepsis. One of the therapeutic approaches widely utilized in inducing apoptosis in inflammatory cells is the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligands (TRAIL), which trigger an extrinsic apoptotic pathway via death receptors. Herein, we report TRAIL encapsulated in a bactericidal polypeptide-crosslinked nanogel that suppressed Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and overactive macrophages. Of interest, nanogel and TRAIL-nanogel treatments were more toxic towards LPS-activated cells than to naïve cells in cell viability assays. Treatment with TRAIL-nanogel significantly prolonged survival in septic mice and reduced bacterial numbers in circulation. As such, TRAIL-nanogel may be promising as a therapeutic agent for treating bacteria-infected diseases.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Materials Science
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering