Translation and validation of a Chinese version of the cleveland adolescent sleepiness questionnaire

Ya Ting Yang, Han Yun Chang, Chung Yao Hsu, Jamie M. Zeitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire was originally developed and published in English and has served as a valid and effective tool for the assessment of adolescents’ experiences with sleepiness in a variety of situations. To allow for comparisons between sleepiness in adolescents from different cultures, and with different linguistic backgrounds, reliable and valid measurement tools are necessary. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate a Chinese version of the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (C-CASQ). Materials and Methods: Sensitivity, specificity, internal consistency, and criterion validity data for the C-CASQ were tested using 458 adolescents in Taiwan. Data from 191 participants were used to establish internal consistency reliability and conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA), while data from 267 participants were used to establish criterion validity and conduct confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Initial criterion validity was established through a comparison of the C-CASQ with scores from the Chinese version of the Morningness- Eveningness Scale for Children, a measure of chronotype. Results: EFA resulted in four factors, consistent with the original English version of the CASQ, while CFA established goodness of fit. The scale demonstrated acceptable to good internal consistency (α = 0.77~0.86). Initial criterion validity was evident as the total score and each of the subscale scores on the C-CASQ was significantly higher (greater sleepiness) in evening-types. Conclusion: The C-CASQ appears to be a psychometrically sound measure to evaluate sleepiness in Chinese-speaking adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)695-702
Number of pages8
JournalNature and Science of Sleep
Publication statusPublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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