Treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: a review

Yu Shan Huang, Jen Jia Yang, Nan-Yao Lee, Guan Jhou Chen, Wen-Chien Ko, Hsin Yun Sun, Chien Ching Hung

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening pulmonary infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals and HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 cell count. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been used as the first-line agent for treatment, but mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene render potential resistance to sulfamide. Despite advances of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), Pneumocystis pneumonia continues to occur in HIV-infected patients with late presentation for cART or virological and immunological failure after receiving cART. Areas covered: This review summarizes the diagnosis and first-line and alternative treatment and prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Articles for this review were identified through searching PubMed. Search terms included: ‘Pneumocystis pneumonia’, ‘Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia’, ‘Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia’, ‘trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole’, ‘primaquine’, ‘trimetrexate’, ‘dapsone’, ‘pentamidine’, ‘atovaquone’, ‘echinocandins’, ‘human immunodeficiency virus infection’, ‘acquired immunodeficiency syndrome’, ‘resistance to sulfamide’ and combinations of these terms. We limited the search to English language papers that were published between 1981 and March 2017. We screened all identified articles and cross-referenced studies from retrieved articles. Expert commentary: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole will continue to be the first-line agent for Pneumocystis pneumonia given its cost, availability of both oral and parenteral formulations, and effectiveness or efficacy in both treatment and prophylaxis. Whether resistance due to mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene compromises treatment effectiveness remains controversial. Continued search for effective alternatives with better safety profiles for Pneumocystis pneumonia is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)873-892
Number of pages20
JournalExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Volume15
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Sep 2

Fingerprint

Pneumocystis carinii
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
HIV
Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Trimethoprim
Dihydropteroate Synthase
Therapeutics
Trimetrexate
Atovaquone
Primaquine
Echinocandins
Pentamidine
Dapsone
Mutation
Virus Diseases
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
PubMed
Genes
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Language
Safety

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Huang, Yu Shan ; Yang, Jen Jia ; Lee, Nan-Yao ; Chen, Guan Jhou ; Ko, Wen-Chien ; Sun, Hsin Yun ; Hung, Chien Ching. / Treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients : a review. In: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. 2017 ; Vol. 15, No. 9. pp. 873-892.
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abstract = "Introduction: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening pulmonary infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals and HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 cell count. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been used as the first-line agent for treatment, but mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene render potential resistance to sulfamide. Despite advances of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), Pneumocystis pneumonia continues to occur in HIV-infected patients with late presentation for cART or virological and immunological failure after receiving cART. Areas covered: This review summarizes the diagnosis and first-line and alternative treatment and prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Articles for this review were identified through searching PubMed. Search terms included: ‘Pneumocystis pneumonia’, ‘Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia’, ‘Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia’, ‘trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole’, ‘primaquine’, ‘trimetrexate’, ‘dapsone’, ‘pentamidine’, ‘atovaquone’, ‘echinocandins’, ‘human immunodeficiency virus infection’, ‘acquired immunodeficiency syndrome’, ‘resistance to sulfamide’ and combinations of these terms. We limited the search to English language papers that were published between 1981 and March 2017. We screened all identified articles and cross-referenced studies from retrieved articles. Expert commentary: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole will continue to be the first-line agent for Pneumocystis pneumonia given its cost, availability of both oral and parenteral formulations, and effectiveness or efficacy in both treatment and prophylaxis. Whether resistance due to mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene compromises treatment effectiveness remains controversial. Continued search for effective alternatives with better safety profiles for Pneumocystis pneumonia is warranted.",
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Treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients : a review. / Huang, Yu Shan; Yang, Jen Jia; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chen, Guan Jhou; Ko, Wen-Chien; Sun, Hsin Yun; Hung, Chien Ching.

In: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, Vol. 15, No. 9, 02.09.2017, p. 873-892.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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T1 - Treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients

T2 - a review

AU - Huang, Yu Shan

AU - Yang, Jen Jia

AU - Lee, Nan-Yao

AU - Chen, Guan Jhou

AU - Ko, Wen-Chien

AU - Sun, Hsin Yun

AU - Hung, Chien Ching

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N2 - Introduction: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening pulmonary infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals and HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 cell count. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been used as the first-line agent for treatment, but mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene render potential resistance to sulfamide. Despite advances of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), Pneumocystis pneumonia continues to occur in HIV-infected patients with late presentation for cART or virological and immunological failure after receiving cART. Areas covered: This review summarizes the diagnosis and first-line and alternative treatment and prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Articles for this review were identified through searching PubMed. Search terms included: ‘Pneumocystis pneumonia’, ‘Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia’, ‘Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia’, ‘trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole’, ‘primaquine’, ‘trimetrexate’, ‘dapsone’, ‘pentamidine’, ‘atovaquone’, ‘echinocandins’, ‘human immunodeficiency virus infection’, ‘acquired immunodeficiency syndrome’, ‘resistance to sulfamide’ and combinations of these terms. We limited the search to English language papers that were published between 1981 and March 2017. We screened all identified articles and cross-referenced studies from retrieved articles. Expert commentary: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole will continue to be the first-line agent for Pneumocystis pneumonia given its cost, availability of both oral and parenteral formulations, and effectiveness or efficacy in both treatment and prophylaxis. Whether resistance due to mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene compromises treatment effectiveness remains controversial. Continued search for effective alternatives with better safety profiles for Pneumocystis pneumonia is warranted.

AB - Introduction: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening pulmonary infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals and HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 cell count. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been used as the first-line agent for treatment, but mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene render potential resistance to sulfamide. Despite advances of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), Pneumocystis pneumonia continues to occur in HIV-infected patients with late presentation for cART or virological and immunological failure after receiving cART. Areas covered: This review summarizes the diagnosis and first-line and alternative treatment and prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Articles for this review were identified through searching PubMed. Search terms included: ‘Pneumocystis pneumonia’, ‘Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia’, ‘Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia’, ‘trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole’, ‘primaquine’, ‘trimetrexate’, ‘dapsone’, ‘pentamidine’, ‘atovaquone’, ‘echinocandins’, ‘human immunodeficiency virus infection’, ‘acquired immunodeficiency syndrome’, ‘resistance to sulfamide’ and combinations of these terms. We limited the search to English language papers that were published between 1981 and March 2017. We screened all identified articles and cross-referenced studies from retrieved articles. Expert commentary: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole will continue to be the first-line agent for Pneumocystis pneumonia given its cost, availability of both oral and parenteral formulations, and effectiveness or efficacy in both treatment and prophylaxis. Whether resistance due to mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene compromises treatment effectiveness remains controversial. Continued search for effective alternatives with better safety profiles for Pneumocystis pneumonia is warranted.

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