A method for predicting type I and II β-turns using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts is proposed. Isolated β-turn chemical-shift data were collected from 1,798 protein chains. One-dimensional statistical analyses on chemical-shift data of three classes β-turn (type I, II, and VIII) showed different distributions at four positions, (i) to (i + 3). Considering the central two residues of type I β-turns, the mean values of Cο, Cα, HN, and NH chemical shifts were generally (i + 1) > (i + 2). The mean values of C β and Hα chemical shifts were (i + 1) < (i + 2). The distributions of the central two residues in type II and VIII β-turns were also distinguishable by trends of chemical shift values. Two-dimensional cluster analyses on chemical-shift data show positional distributions more clearly. Based on these propensities of chemical shift classified as a function of position, rules were derived using scoring matrices for four consecutive residues to predict type I and II β-turns. The proposed method achieves an overall prediction accuracy of 83.2 and 84.2 % with the Matthews correlation coefficient values of 0.317 and 0.632 for type I and II β-turns, indicating that its higher accuracy for type II turn prediction. The results show that it is feasible to use NMR chemical shifts to predict the β-turn types in proteins. The proposed method can be incorporated into other chemical-shift based protein secondary structure prediction methods.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes