It has been shown that ultrasound (US) stimulation accelerates fracture healing in animal models and in clinical studies. Here we found that US stimulation transiently increased the surface expression of α2, α5, β1, and β3 integrins in cultured osteoblasts, as shown by flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence staining. US stimulation increased prostaglandin E2 formation and the protein and mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). At the mechanistic level, anti-integrin α5β1 and αvβ3 antibodies or rhodostomin, a snake venom disintegrin, attenuated the US-induced COX-2 expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) and wortmannin also inhibited the potentiating action of US. US stimulation increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p85 subunit of PI3K, and serine 473 of Akt. COX-2 promoter activity was enhanced by US stimulation in cells transfected with pCOX2-Luc. Cotransfection with dominant-negative mutant of FAK(Y397F), p85(Δp85), Akt(K179A), or ERK2(K52R) inhibited the potentiating action of US on COX-2 promoter activity. Expression of mineralized nodule was lower in dominant-negative mutants of FAK, p85, and Akt-transfected clones than in vector-transfected control cells. Taken together, our results provide evidence that US stimulation increases COX-2 expression and promotes bone formation in osteoblasts via the integrin/ FAK/PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathway.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine