Upregulated IL-19 in breast cancer promotes tumor progression and affects clinical outcome

Chung Hsi Hsing, Hung Chi Cheng, Yu Hsiang Hsu, Chien Hui Chan, Ching Hua Yeh, Chien Feng Li, Ming Shi Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Interleukin (IL)-19 was expressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast tissue but not in healthy breast tissue. We explored the effects of IL-19 on the pathogenesis of breast cancer and its clinical outcome. Experimental Design: Tumor expression of IL-19 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and/or real-time quantitative PCR between two groups of patients with breast IDC (n = 60 and 143, respectively) with available clinical and survival data. We examined the effects of IL-19 on cytokine and chemokine production as well as proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells. Mice were injected with IL-19-overexpressing or vector control 67NR cells and the tumor growth and lung metastatic micronodules were measured. Results: Of the IDC specimens, high IL-19 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage, high tumor metastasis, and worse survival. In vitro, IL-19 induced transcripts of IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, MMP9, and CXCR4 in 4T1 breast cancer cells; induced fibronectin expression and assembly; and promoted cancer cell proliferation and migration, which were inhibited by anti-IL-19 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Endogenous fibronectin expression and cancer cell migration were lower in IL-19 knockdown 4T1 cells. In 4T1 cells, hypoxia induced IL-19 and CXCR4 expression, which was inhibited by anti-IL-19 mAb. IL-19 overexpression in noninvasive 67NR cancer cells increased cell proliferation and migration. In vivo, mice injected with IL-19-overexpressing 67NR cell clones showed larger tumors and more metastatic micronodules in the lung. Conclusions: High IL-19 expression in breast cancer tissue is associated with a poor clinical outcome. IL-19 is pivotal in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)713-725
Number of pages13
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Feb 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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