Phthalate exposure and oxidative stress have been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes in experimental studies, whereas no clear line has been drawn for human, especially in pregnant women. This study explored relationships between urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative and nitrosative DNA damage. Measurements from 97 Taiwanese pregnant women were taken at three different times during second and third trimesters. Five oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers – 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2Gua), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-isoPF2α), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and 11 phthalate metabolites were measured in urine samples. Linear regressions in each visit and linear mixed-model regressions were fitted to estimate percent changes in oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers resulting from inter-tertile increase of phthalate metabolite level and the cumulative concentrations of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate. The highest urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites and the greatest number of significant positive associations between phthalate metabolites and oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers were observed in the third visit and in repeated measurements analysis, respectively. Of the biomarkers related to DNA damage, 8-OHdG (25.4% inter-tertile increase for mono-iso-butyl phthalate) was more sensitive to phthalate exposure than 8-NO2Gua. Among the biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, HNE-MA (61.2% inter-tertile increase for sum of DEHP metabolites) was more sensitive than 8-isoPF2α and MDA. Our findings support the hypothesis that pregnant phthalate exposure increases the oxidative stress biomarkers of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Future research may elucidate the mediating roles of oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers in the link between phthalate exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)