Background: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most widely used phthalates and is associated with breast cancer. Ths association between DEHP and other types of cancer is not clear. DEHP may increase matrix metalloproteinase-9 that is critical for the development of urothelial cancer (UC). We examined the association between urinary phthalate metabolites and UC. CKD patients were selected as a control group because CKD patients are more at risk of UC than the general population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured seven urinary phthalate metabolites that are abundant and can be measured using HPLC-MS/MS in Taiwan CKD patients between Jul 2013 and Dec 2015. MiBP (a urinary metabolite of Dibutyl phthalates[DBP]) and MEHHP (a urinary metabolite of DEHP) were described because they are the most abundant phthalate metabolites. The association of phthalate (log-transformed) and UC were analyzed using logistic regression with adjustments for age, gender, renal function, use of traditional Chinese medicine, toxins (dye, organic solvent), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Results: We measured the urinary MEHHP and MiBP of 496 patients (224 UC and 272 CKD patients). The urinary MEHHP was associated with UC but MiBP was not. Medical history including the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, exposure to environmental toxins (dye, paint, and organic solvent), and the use of traditional Chinese medicine was independently associated with UC. The adjusted odds ratio of MEHHP was 1.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.21–1.68). Conclusion: Phthalate urinary metabolite(MEHHP) may be associated with UC in CKD patients and the association is independent of well-known risk factors of UC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis