Long propagation delay is one of the most important characteristics in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) and poses a great challenge for medium access control (MAC) protocol design, especially for contentionbased MAC protocols due to intolerable delay caused by unpredictable retransmissions in UWSNs. Recently, some MAC protocols for UWSNs have been suggested in the literature, and most of them are based on random access with their capabilities to compensate propagation delay. However, two issues should still be resolved in these protocols: (a) they need to make measurements to realize duty cycle synchronization and (b) packet collisions exist, which not only reduce the throughput (thus increasing delays) but also waste energy. In this paper, we propose a novel MAC protocol explicitly designed for UWSNs, which makes the best use of the propagation delay to resolve collision problem and reduce overhead of control-packet to save energy. The proposed MAC protocol can assure that the number of retransmissions is not more than one. To validate the analytical results, simulations have been conducted to show that the proposed MAC protocol can offer a low energy consumption while avoiding collisions in UWSNs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Information Systems
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering