Conclusions/Significance: Clinical data, ex vivo experiments, and animal studies suggest there is virulence variation among clinically important Aeromonas species.
Methodology/Principal Findings: Nine of four species of Aeromonas blood isolates, including A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae were randomly selected for analysis. The species was identified by the DNA sequence matching of rpoD. Clinically, the patients with A. dhakensis bacteremia had a higher sepsis-related mortality rate than those with other species (37.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.028). Virulence of different Aeromonas species were tested in C. elegans, mouse fibroblast C2C12 cell line and BALB/c mice models. C. elegans fed with A. dhakensis and A. caviae had the lowest and highest survival rates compared with other species, respectively (all P values〈0.0001). A. dhakensis isolates also exhibited more cytotoxicity in C2C12 cell line (all P values〈0.0001). Fourteen-day survival rate of mice intramuscularly inoculated with A. dhakensis was lower than that of other species (all P values 〈0.0001). Hemolytic activity and several virulence factor genes were rarely detected in the A. caviae isolates.
The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections.
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