This study measured the volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents of four processes in an integrated iron and steel industry; cokemaking, sintering, hot forming, and cold forming. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, isopentane, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were the predominant VOC species in these processes. However, some of the chlorinated compounds were high (hundreds ppbv), i.e., trichloroethylene in all four processes, carbon tetrachloride in the hot forming process, chlorobenzene in the cold forming process, and bromomethane in the sintering process. In the sintering process, the emission factors of toluene, benzene, xylene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and ethylbenzene were over 9 g/tonne-product. In the vicinity of the manufacturing plant, toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene and ethylbenzene were high. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene, 1-butene and isopentane were the major ozone formation species. Aromatic compounds were the predominant VOC groups, constituting 45-70% of the VOC concentration and contributing >70% to the high ozone formation potential in the stack exhaust and workplace air. The sequence of VOC concentration and ozone formation potential was as follows: cold forming > sintering > hot forming > cokemaking. For the workplace air, cokemaking was the highest producer, which was attributed to the fugitive emissions of the coke oven and working process release.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis