Wear Inducing Phase Transformation of Plasma Transfer Arc Coated Tools during Friction Stir Welding with Al Alloy

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Abstract

The friction stir welding process (friction stir welding/processing, FSW/FSP) has wear problems related to stirring tools. In this study, the plasma transfer arc (PTA) method was used with stellite 1 powders (Co-based) to coat on the head of a SKD61 stirring tool (SKD61-ST1) in order to investigate the wear performance and phase transformation of SKD61-ST1 after FSW. Under the same experimental parameters, the wear data were compared with the high-speed steel SKH51 (tempering material SKH51-T and annealed material SKH51-A) and tungsten-carbide cobalt (TCC). Results showed the PTA coating was a γ-Co solidification matrix with M7C3 and M23C6 carbides. After FSW, the wear resistance of SKD61-ST1 was better than that of SKH51-A and SKH51-T and lower than that of TCC. The SKD61-ST1, SKH51-A, and SKH51-T stirring tools exhibited sliding wear after FSP, where the pin and shoulder of the stirring tool formed a phase transfer layer on the surface, and the peeling of the phase transfer layer caused wear weight loss. The main phase of the phase transfer layer of the SKD61-ST1 tool was Al9Co2. The affinity and adhesion energy of the Co-Al phase was lower than that of Fe-Al phase, and the phase transfer layer of the SKD61-ST1 tool was thinner and had lower coverage, thereby increasing the wear resistance of the SKD61-ST1 stirring tools during FSW.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6413608
JournalJournal of Engineering (United Kingdom)
Volume2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1

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Friction stir welding
Phase transitions
Wear of materials
Plasmas
Tungsten carbide
Cobalt
Wear resistance
Stellite
Peeling
Steel
Tempering
Powders
Carbides
Solidification
Adhesion
Coatings
Processing

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Wear Inducing Phase Transformation of Plasma Transfer Arc Coated Tools during Friction Stir Welding with Al Alloy",
abstract = "The friction stir welding process (friction stir welding/processing, FSW/FSP) has wear problems related to stirring tools. In this study, the plasma transfer arc (PTA) method was used with stellite 1 powders (Co-based) to coat on the head of a SKD61 stirring tool (SKD61-ST1) in order to investigate the wear performance and phase transformation of SKD61-ST1 after FSW. Under the same experimental parameters, the wear data were compared with the high-speed steel SKH51 (tempering material SKH51-T and annealed material SKH51-A) and tungsten-carbide cobalt (TCC). Results showed the PTA coating was a γ-Co solidification matrix with M7C3 and M23C6 carbides. After FSW, the wear resistance of SKD61-ST1 was better than that of SKH51-A and SKH51-T and lower than that of TCC. The SKD61-ST1, SKH51-A, and SKH51-T stirring tools exhibited sliding wear after FSP, where the pin and shoulder of the stirring tool formed a phase transfer layer on the surface, and the peeling of the phase transfer layer caused wear weight loss. The main phase of the phase transfer layer of the SKD61-ST1 tool was Al9Co2. The affinity and adhesion energy of the Co-Al phase was lower than that of Fe-Al phase, and the phase transfer layer of the SKD61-ST1 tool was thinner and had lower coverage, thereby increasing the wear resistance of the SKD61-ST1 stirring tools during FSW.",
author = "Chen, {Kuan Jen} and Hung, {Fei Yi} and Lui, {Truan Sheng} and Shih, {Yong Ren}",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.1155/2019/6413608",
language = "English",
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AU - Chen, Kuan Jen

AU - Hung, Fei Yi

AU - Lui, Truan Sheng

AU - Shih, Yong Ren

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The friction stir welding process (friction stir welding/processing, FSW/FSP) has wear problems related to stirring tools. In this study, the plasma transfer arc (PTA) method was used with stellite 1 powders (Co-based) to coat on the head of a SKD61 stirring tool (SKD61-ST1) in order to investigate the wear performance and phase transformation of SKD61-ST1 after FSW. Under the same experimental parameters, the wear data were compared with the high-speed steel SKH51 (tempering material SKH51-T and annealed material SKH51-A) and tungsten-carbide cobalt (TCC). Results showed the PTA coating was a γ-Co solidification matrix with M7C3 and M23C6 carbides. After FSW, the wear resistance of SKD61-ST1 was better than that of SKH51-A and SKH51-T and lower than that of TCC. The SKD61-ST1, SKH51-A, and SKH51-T stirring tools exhibited sliding wear after FSP, where the pin and shoulder of the stirring tool formed a phase transfer layer on the surface, and the peeling of the phase transfer layer caused wear weight loss. The main phase of the phase transfer layer of the SKD61-ST1 tool was Al9Co2. The affinity and adhesion energy of the Co-Al phase was lower than that of Fe-Al phase, and the phase transfer layer of the SKD61-ST1 tool was thinner and had lower coverage, thereby increasing the wear resistance of the SKD61-ST1 stirring tools during FSW.

AB - The friction stir welding process (friction stir welding/processing, FSW/FSP) has wear problems related to stirring tools. In this study, the plasma transfer arc (PTA) method was used with stellite 1 powders (Co-based) to coat on the head of a SKD61 stirring tool (SKD61-ST1) in order to investigate the wear performance and phase transformation of SKD61-ST1 after FSW. Under the same experimental parameters, the wear data were compared with the high-speed steel SKH51 (tempering material SKH51-T and annealed material SKH51-A) and tungsten-carbide cobalt (TCC). Results showed the PTA coating was a γ-Co solidification matrix with M7C3 and M23C6 carbides. After FSW, the wear resistance of SKD61-ST1 was better than that of SKH51-A and SKH51-T and lower than that of TCC. The SKD61-ST1, SKH51-A, and SKH51-T stirring tools exhibited sliding wear after FSP, where the pin and shoulder of the stirring tool formed a phase transfer layer on the surface, and the peeling of the phase transfer layer caused wear weight loss. The main phase of the phase transfer layer of the SKD61-ST1 tool was Al9Co2. The affinity and adhesion energy of the Co-Al phase was lower than that of Fe-Al phase, and the phase transfer layer of the SKD61-ST1 tool was thinner and had lower coverage, thereby increasing the wear resistance of the SKD61-ST1 stirring tools during FSW.

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