Background: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is commonly performed in patients with non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), but because very long-term follow-up results of RFCA are limited, we investigated the 10-year RFCA outcomes of non-paroxysmal AF. Methods and Results: We retrospectively enrolled 100 patients (89 men, mean age 53.5±8.4years) with drug-refractory symptomatic non-paroxysmal AF who underwent 3D electroanatomic-guided RFCA. Procedural characteristics at index procedures and clinical outcomes were investigated. In the index procedures, all patients had pulmonary vein isolation, 56 (56.0%), 48 (48.0%), and 32 (32.0%) underwent additional linear, complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) and non-pulmonary vein (NPV) foci ablations, respectively. After 124.1±31.7 months, 16 (16%) patients remained in sinus rhythm after just 1 procedure (3 with antiarrhythmic drugs [AAD]) and after multiple (2.1±1.3) procedures in 53 (53.0%) patients (22 with AAD). Left atrial (LA) diameter (hazard ratio HR 1.061; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.020 to 1.103; P=0.003), presence of NPV triggers (HR 1.634; 95% CI 1.019 to 2.623; P=0.042) and undergoing CFAE ablation (HR 2.003; 95% CI 1.262 to 3.180; P=0.003) in the index procedure were independent predictors for recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia. Conclusions: The 10-year outcomes of single RFCA in non-paroxysmal AF were unsatisfactory. Enlarged LA, presence of NPV triggers, and undergoing CFAE ablation in the index procedure independently predicted single-procedure recurrence. Multiple procedures are required to achieve adequate rhythm control.
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