Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalences in Taiwan and worldwide. However, the association of untreated chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. Methods: This cohort study used claims data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 1996-2010, in which all diseases were classified by ICD-9-CM codes. We identified 17796 adults who had chronic HBV infection and did not take nucleos(t)ide analogues from 1998 to 2010 and also randomly selected 71184 matched controls without HBV in the same dataset. Cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of incident CKD were evaluated through the end of 2010 after adjusting for competing mortality. Results: The risk of CKD was significantly higher in the HBV cohort (13-year cumulative incidence, 6.2 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 5.4-7.1 %) than in the non-HBV cohort (2.7 %; 95 % CI, 2.5-3.0 %) (p∈<∈0.001), and the aHR was 2.58 (95 % CI, 1.95-3.42; p∈<∈0.001). Multivariable stratified analysis further verified significant associations of CKD with HBV in men of any age (aHR, 2.98; 95 % CI, 2.32-3.83, p∈<∈0.001 for men aged <50 years; aHR, 1.58; 95 % CI, 1.31-1.91, p∈<∈0.001 for men aged 50 years) and women under the age of 50 (aHR, 2.99; 95 % CI, 2.04-4.42, p∈<∈0.001), but no significant association in women aged 50 or over. Conclusion: Untreated chronic HBV infection is associated with increased risk of CKD. Hence, high-risk HBV-infected subjects should have targeted monitoring for the development of CKD.
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