In this study, a simple and direct method has been proposed, which can to be used for quantitatively distinguishing the mechanisms of domain reorientation processes in polycrystalline materials. By using this method, the 90° - domain reorientation in the Pb(ZrxTii-x)C)3 ceramic under the electric field was examined through the X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the polarization switching in the PZT ceramic with the composition near the morphotropic phase boundary is predominantly controlled by the two successive 90° domain processes rather than only the 180° domain reversal process. Experimental results also indicate that the coercive field of ferroelectric ceramics is related to the cooperative deformation associated with each grain. This cooperative deformation arises from 90°- domain reversal process.
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