Background: Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI), the first licensed, long-acting second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), has not yet been studied in terms of its effectiveness compared with first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) LAIs. Methods: The differences in the effectiveness of RLAI and two other FGA LAIs, haloperidol and flupentixol, were assessed by conducting a one-year pre-post study based on the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. Effectiveness was defined as reduced medical care utilization and relapse prevention. Results: A decreased number of relapses were identified in the haloperidol injection group in the post-LAI period than in the pre-LAI period (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p. <. 0.05). The RLAI group had the largest number of acute admissions and relapses, the longest duration of admission (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p. <. 0.005), and the lowest utilization of anticholinergic agents, such as benzodiazepine (BZD) and SGAs (except oral risperidone), among all of the LAI groups in the post-LAI period. Conclusions: According to the results of this observational study, we suggest that the effectiveness of RLAI is not superior to that of FGA (haloperidol or flupentixol) LAIs, but that RLAI might have fewer adverse effects.
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