Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of using two kinds of lead-free gasoline [including 92-lead-free gasoline (92-LFG) and 95-lead-free gasoline (95-LFG), rated according to their octane levels] to replace the use of premium leaded gasoline (PLG) on the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) amounts from the gasoline-powered engine. The results show that the three gasoline fuels originally contained similar total PAHs and total BaPeq contents; however, we found significant differences in the engine exhausts in both contents. The above results suggest that PAHs originally contained in the gasoline fuel did not affect the PAH emissions in the engine exhausts. The emission factors of both total PAHs and total BaPeq obtained from the three gasoline fuels shared the same trend: 95-LFG > PLG > 92-LFG. The above result suggests that when PLG was replaced by 95-LFG, the emissions would increase in both total PAHs and total BaPeq, but when replaced by 92-LFG would lead to the decreased emissions of both contents. By taking emission factors and their corresponding annual gasoline consumption rates into account, we found that both total PAH and total BaPeq emissions increased from 1994 to 1999. However, the annual increasing rates in total BaPeq emissions were slightly higher than the corresponding increasing rates in total PAHs.
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