Pine wastes, including pine needles, cones, and wood, are abundantly produced as an agroforestry by-product globally and have shown tremendous potential for biochar production. Various thermochemical conversion technologies have exhibited promising results in converting pine wastes to biochar, displaying impressive performance. Hence, this review paper aims to investigate the possibilities and recent technological advancements for synthesizing biochar from pine waste. Furthermore, it explores techniques for enhancing the properties of biochar and its integrated applications in various fields, such as soil and water remediation, carbon sequestration, battery capacitor synthesis, and bio-coal production. Finally, the paper sheds light on the limitations of current strategies, emphasizing the need for further research and study to address the challenges in pine waste-based biochar synthesis. By promoting sustainable and effective utilization of pine wastes, this review contributes to environmental conservation and resource management.
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