Background: The Oxford classification of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) provides a histopathologic grading system that is associated with kidney disease outcomes independent of clinical features. We evaluated the Oxford IgAN classification in a large cohort of patients from China. Study Design: Retrospective study. Setting & Participants: 1,026 adults with IgAN from 18 referral centers in China. Inclusion criteria and statistical analysis were similar to the Oxford study. Predictors: Histologic findings of mesangial hypercellularity score, endocapillary proliferation, segmental sclerosis or adhesion, crescents, necrosis, and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis. Clinical features, blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, and treatment modalities. Outcomes: Time to a 50% reduction in eGFR or end-stage renal disease (the combined event); the rate of eGFR decline (slope of eGFR); proteinuria during follow-up. Results: Compared with the Oxford cohort, the Chinese cohort had a lower proportion of patients with mesangial hypercellularity (43%) and endocapillary proliferation (11%), higher proportion with segmental sclerosis or adhesion (83%) and necrosis (15%), and similar proportion with crescents (48%) and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (moderate, 24%; severe, 3.3%). During a median follow-up of 53 (25th-75th percentile, 36-67) months, 159 (15.5%) patients reached the combined event. Our study showed that patients with a mesangial hypercellularity score higher than 0.5 were associated with a 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.5-2.8; P<0.001) higher risk of the combined event than patients with a score of 0.5 or lower. Patients with tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis of 25%-50% and >50% versus <25% were associated with a 3.7-fold (95% CI, 2.6-5.1; P<0.001) and 15.1-fold (95% CI, 9.5-24.2; P<0.001) higher risk of the combined event, respectively. Endocapillary proliferation, glomerular crescents, and necrosis were not significant. Limitations: Retrospective study; the therapeutic interventions were miscellaneous. Conclusions: We confirmed the associations of mesangial hypercellularity and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis with kidney disease outcomes.
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