The association of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. To help clarify this we conducted a nationwide cohort study to measure the association by analyzing the claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database with ICD-9 codes used to identify diseases. We identified 17,758 adults who had chronic HBV infection and had not taken nucleos(t)ide analogs from 1999 to 2010 and randomly selected 71,032 matched controls without HBV in the same data set. The risk of ESRD was compared between these two cohorts. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios were calculated after adjusting for competing mortality. The risk of ESRD was significantly higher in the HBV cohort (12-year cumulative incidence, 1.9%) than in the non-HBV cohort (0.49%) with a significant adjusted hazard ratio of 3.85. Multivariable stratified analysis further verified significant associations of ESRD with HBV in men of any age and women under the age of 60 years, but no significant association in women aged ≥60 years. Thus, a large national cohort study indicates that untreated chronic HBV infection is associated with increased risk of ESRD. Hence, high-risk HBV-infected patients should have targeted monitoring for the development of ESRD.
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