The fiducial-marks-based alignment process is one of the most critical steps in printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. In the alignment process, a machine vision technique is used to detect the fiducial marks and then adjust the position of the vision system in such a way that it is aligned with the PCB. The present study proposed an embedded PCB alignment system, in which a rotation, scale and translation (RST) template-matching algorithm was employed to locate the marks on the PCB surface. The coordinates and angles of the detected marks were then compared with the reference values which were set by users, and the difference between them was used to adjust the position of the vision system accordingly. To improve the positioning accuracy, the angle and location matching process was performed in refinement processes. To overcome the matching time, in the present study we accelerated the rotation matching by eliminating the weak features in the scanning process and converting the normalized cross correlation (NCC) formula to a sum of products. Moreover, the scanning time was reduced by implementing the entire RST process in parallel on threads of a graphics processing unit (GPU) by applying hash functions to find refined positions in the refinement matching process. The experimental results showed that the resulting matching time was around 32× faster than that achieved on a conventional central processing unit (CPU) for a test image size of 1280 × 960 pixels. Furthermore, the precision of the alignment process achieved a considerable result with a tolerance of 36.4μm.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering