Previous studies found that cilostazol has a favorable effect on glucose and lipid homeosta-sis, endothelial function, atherosclerosis, and vasculo-angiogenesis. However, it is poorly understood whether these effects can translate into better clinical outcomes. This study investigated the outcome effect of cilostazol in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or at a high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 266 patients who received cilostazol, 200 mg/day (n = 134) or placebo (n = 132). Pre-specified clinical endpoints including composite major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarct, non-fatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, or unplanned coronary revascu-larization), the composite major coronary event (MCE) and major adverse CV and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), were prospectively assessed. The mean duration of follow-up was 2.9 years. Relative to placebo, cilostazol treatment had a borderline effect on risk reduction of MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34–1.33), whereas the beneficial effect in favor of cilostazol was significant in patients with diabetes mellitus or a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (p for interaction, 0.02 and 0.06, respectively). Use of cilostazol, significantly reduced the risk of MCE (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17–0.86) and MACCE (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23–0.96). A significantly lower risk of angina pectoris (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17–0.86) was also observed in the cilostazol group. After multi-variable adjustment, cilostazol treatment independently predicted a lower risk of MCE. In conclusion, these results suggest cilostazol may have beneficial effects in patients with CAD or at a high risk of CV disease.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes