In recent years, cases of the improper utilization of steel furnace slag have been widely reported, resulting in a crisis of nowhere for recycled resources such as inorganic slag. The misplacement of resource materials that originally had sustainable-use value not only has a great impact on society and the environment but also greatly reduces industrial competitiveness. To solve the dilemma of steel furnace-slag reuse, it is critical to find solutions to the stabilization of steelmaking slag under the innovative thinking of the circular economy. In addition to enhancing the reuse value of recycled resources, the balance between economic development and environmental impact is also crucial. The high-performance building material could provide a solution based on a high-value market. With the development of society and the increasing requirements for quality of life, the requirements for the soundproof and fireproof performance of lightweight decorative panels common in cities have gradually become popular. Therefore, the high performance of fire retardant and soundproofing could be the main development focus of high-value building materials to ensure circular economic feasibility. This study continues the research results of the application of inorganic re-cycled engineering materials in recent years, and the application of electric-arc furnace (EAF)-reducing slag to the development of base materials for reinforced cement boards, in order to complete the development of high-value panels with fireproof and sound-insulation properties in line with the engineering characteristics of the boards. The research results showed the optimization of the proportions of the cement boards with EAF-reducing slag as a raw material. The proportions of EAF-reducing slag to fly ash at ratios of 70:30 and 60:40 all met the requirements of ISO 5660-1 Class I flame resistance; the sound transmission loss in the overall frequency band can reach more than 30 dB, which is higher by 3–8 dB or more than the same board with similar specifications (such as 12 mm gypsum board) in the present building-materials market The products could be developed into building partitions and ceiling decoration boards with high performance in terms of fire retardant and soundproofing values, and also reduce the use of natural raw materials by more than 35%. The results of this study could meet environmental compatibility targets and contribute towards greener buildings. This model of circular economics would achieve energy reduction, emissions reductions, and be environmentally friendly.
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