Magnesium-matrix implants can be detected by X-ray, making post-operative monitoring easier. Since the density and mechanical properties of Mg alloys are similar to those of human bones, the stress-shielding effect can be avoided, accelerating the recovery and regeneration of bone tissues. Additionally, Mg biodegradability shields patients from the infection risk and medical financial burden of needing another surgery. However, the major challenge for magnesium-matrix implants is the rapid degradation rate, which necessitates surface treatment. In this study, the ZKX500 Mg alloy was used, and a non-toxic and eco-friendly anodic oxidation method was adopted to improve corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the anodic coating mainly consisted of magnesium phosphate. After anodic oxidation, the specimen surface developed a coating and an ion-exchanged layer that could slow down the degradation and help maintain the mechanical properties. The results of the tensile and impact tests reveal that after being immersed in SBF for 28 days, the anodic oxidation-treated specimens maintained good strength, ductility, and toughness. Anodic coating provides an excellent surface for cell attachment and growth. In the animal experiment, the anodic oxidation-treated magnesium bone screw used had no adverse effect and could support the injured part for at least 3 months.
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