Acute anticholinesterase pesticide (organophosphate and carbamate) poisoning (ACPP) often produces severe complications, and sometimes death. We investigated the long-term mortality of patients with ACPP because it is not sufficiently understood. In this retrospective nationwide population-based cohort study, 818 patients with ACPP and 16,360 healthy comparisons from 1999 to 2010 were selected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. They were followed until 2011. Ninety-four (11.5%) ACPP patients and 793 (4.9%) comparisons died (P<0.01) during follow-up. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of death were 2.5 times higher in ACPP patients than in comparisons (P<0.01). The risk of death was particularly high in the first month after ACPP (IRR: 92.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 45.0- 191.0) and still high for -6 months (IRR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9-7.4). After adjusting for age, gender, selected comorbidities, geographic area, and monthly income, the hazard ratio of death for ACPP patients was still 2.4 times higher than for comparisons. Older age (≥35 years), male gender, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, hypertension, stroke, mental disorder, and lower monthly income also predicted death. ACPP significantly increased long-term mortality. In addition to early followup after acute treatment, comorbidity control and socioeconomic assistance are needed for patients with ACPP.
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