Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective technique for compensating the aberrations in optical systems and restoring their performance for various applications such as image formation, laser processing, and beam shaping. To reduce the controller complexity and extend the compensation capacity from static aberrations to dynamic disturbances, the present study proposes an AO system consisting of a self-built Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS), a deformable mirror (DM), and field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based controllers. This AO system is developed for tracking static and dynamic disturbances and tuning the controller parameters as required to achieve rapid compensation of the incoming wavefront. In the proposed system, the FPGA estimates the coefficients of the eight Zernike modes based on the SHWS with CameraLink operated at 200 Hz. The estimated coefficients are then processed by eight parallel independent discrete controllers to generate the voltage vectors to drive the DM to compensate the aberrations. To have the DM model for controller design, the voltage vectors are identified offline and are optimized by closed-loop controllers. Furthermore, the controller parameters are tuned dynamically in accordance with the main frequency of the aberration as determined by a fast Fourier transform (FFT) process. The experimental results show that the AO system provides a low complexity and effective means of compensating both static aberrations and dynamic disturbance up to 20 Hz.
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