The anaerobic digestion is the adopted to remediate the pollutant and extract the bioenergy from the waste during the treatment. Effects of adding carbon-based materials on enhancement of digestion performance are studied in literature. This paper provided a mini review on the current research efforts on the traditional view on the cytotoxicity of carbon-based materials to the aquatic microorganisms and the novel “adding carbon-based material strategy” for improving the anaerobic digestion performances. The further research needs for comprehending the interactions between the added carbon materials, the substrates and the microorganisms and the impacts of adopting these additives on full-scale operations were highlighted.
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